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2024 Employment Law Year in Review: Angola, Gabon & Mozambique

Submitted by Firm:
Miranda Alliance - FFA | Fátima Freitas Associados
Firm Contacts:
Adail Cardoso, Elieser Corte Real, Jayr Fernandes , Nuno Gouveia
Article Type:
Legal Article

2024 Employment Law Year in Review: Angola, Gabon & Mozambique

Welcome to an enlightening journey through the evolving landscape of employment law across Angola, Gabon, and Mozambique, courtesy of the Employment Law Alliance's (ELA) Employment Matters Podcast. Hosted by Nuno Gouveia of Miranda Alliance, this series delves into the significant legal reforms of the past year and offers forward-looking insights on developments that are poised to impact employers in the forthcoming year. Featuring legal experts from each jurisdiction, the podcast not only illuminates the diverse legal changes across these regions but also provides strategic guidance for navigating the complex world of employment law.

Legal Reforms: A Closer Look at Angola, Gabon, and Mozambique

Each country's legal reforms in the employment sector underscore a broader narrative of adaptation and alignment with global labor standards, yet they also reflect unique regional challenges and objectives.

Angola: A New Dawn in Employment Legislation

2023 marked a pivotal year for Angola, introducing sweeping reforms with the enactment of the new General Labor Law (Law 12/23). Spearheaded by Adail Cardoso of Fátima Freitas Associados, the discussion highlighted several critical areas of change. Notably, the abolishment of distinctions between micro, small, and large companies concerning fixed-term hiring practices stands out, imposing uniform regulations that could increase operational costs for smaller entities. 

The law now limits the use of fixed-term contracts to exceptional circumstances, a move aimed at stabilizing employment relationships. Furthermore, adjustments to overtime compensation, now pegged at 100% of salary for work performed on holidays, alongside revamped disciplinary and dismissal procedures, signal a more regulated labor environment. These reforms, taking effect from March 2024, represent a significant shift towards enhancing workers' rights and employers' responsibilities, potentially reshaping Angola's labor market dynamics.

Angola's Bold Reforms: Bridging the Gap

Angola's legislative overhaul, particularly the new General Labor Law, represents a bold step toward enhancing labor rights and employer obligations. The equal treatment of companies, regardless of size, in terms of fixed-term hiring practices, signals a move towards a more inclusive and equitable labor market. 

This reform is likely to encourage a more stable employment environment, although it could initially challenge smaller businesses due to increased costs associated with the new regulations. The significant changes in overtime compensation and the introduction of stringent rules on disciplinary actions and dismissals highlight Angola's commitment to protecting workers while ensuring that businesses can operate efficiently within a regulated framework.

Gabon: Political Changes Shaping Employment Law

Gabon's legal landscape in 2023 was notably influenced by political upheavals, as highlighted by Silvia Mota Carvalho from Cabinet Nguia. The coup d'état on August 30, 2023, brought about a period of uncertainty, redirecting the focus towards evaluating and possibly revising existing labor laws. 

While concrete legal changes are yet to be implemented, the political shift underscores a critical juncture for Gabon, with potential implications for employment law and workforce dynamics. Employers and legal practitioners are keenly watching the national dialogue for signs of how the new transitional government will address labor laws, highlighting the intricate link between politics and legal reforms in shaping the employment landscape.

Gabon's Transitional Phase: Navigating Uncertainty

In Gabon, the political landscape's impact on employment law underscores the delicate balance between governance and legal reform. The coup d'état in August 2023 has introduced a period of uncertainty, with potential shifts in legal frameworks looming on the horizon. 

The focus on revising the Labor Code to better serve the labor market's needs speaks to a broader intent to foster a legal environment that supports economic development and worker protection. As Gabon navigates this transitional phase, the emphasis on local content and the regulation of foreign labor reflect a strategic approach to bolstering the domestic workforce and addressing local employment challenges.

Mozambique: Comprehensive Labor Law Overhaul

In Mozambique, the introduction of a new labor law (Law No. 18/2023) in August 2023, as detailed by António Veloso from Pimenta & Associados, marks a significant evolution in the nation's employment regulations. The comprehensive overhaul addresses key aspects such as employment contract norms, vacation entitlements, and disciplinary procedures, reflecting an effort to align the legal framework with current economic realities and international labor standards. 

Noteworthy changes include the regulation of telework, the enhancement of parental rights, and the introduction of mechanisms to combat workplace harassment. Set to come into force in February 2024, these changes necessitate a proactive approach from employers to ensure compliance and adapt to the new legal environment.

Mozambique's Comprehensive Overhaul: Setting a New Standard

Mozambique's enactment of a new labor law is indicative of a comprehensive effort to modernize its employment regulations. The law's extensive scope, covering everything from telework to parental rights and disciplinary measures, sets a new standard for labor legislation in the region. 

These changes are not only aimed at aligning Mozambique's legal framework with international labor conventions but also at addressing the specific needs of the local labor market. The introduction of telework regulations, for instance, acknowledges the evolving nature of work in the digital age, while enhancements to parental rights reflect a progressive stance on work-life balance.

Predictions for Future Developments

Looking ahead, our experts offer insightful predictions for each country:

In Angola, the most significant impact is expected from the changes in fixed-term contract regulations, potentially prompting a reevaluation of employment strategies by companies. The stricter rules on dismissals could also lead to an uptick in litigation, highlighting the need for careful legal navigation by employers.

Gabon's labor market is anticipated to face increased regulatory scrutiny, especially concerning the recruitment of foreign workers and compliance with local content requirements. The national dialogue and subsequent political developments will play a crucial role in shaping the legal framework, with employers advised to remain vigilant and adaptable.

Mozambique's employers are tasked with aligning their practices with the newly introduced legal standards. The transitional provisions of the new labor law, covering a broad spectrum of employment aspects, require a detailed understanding and strategic adjustments to ensure full compliance.

Anticipating the Impact of Legal Changes

The legal reforms in Angola, Gabon, and Mozambique are set against a backdrop of global economic shifts and a heightened focus on labor rights. As these countries implement their new laws, the impact on the local and regional labor markets will be closely watched by employers, legal practitioners, and international observers alike.

Operational Adjustments and Strategic Planning: Employers across these jurisdictions will need to undertake significant operational adjustments to comply with the new laws. Strategic planning will be crucial as businesses navigate the changes, particularly in Angola and Mozambique, where the reforms directly affect employment contract norms and disciplinary procedures.

Increased Legal and Regulatory Scrutiny: Gabon's focus on local content and the regulation of foreign labor, amidst its political transition, may lead to increased legal and regulatory scrutiny for businesses. Companies operating in critical sectors will need to pay close attention to compliance with labor standards and local employment quotas.

Future Legal Developments and Global Trends: As these countries adapt to their new legal frameworks, future developments will likely be influenced by global labor trends, including the growing emphasis on remote work, digital transformation, and the need for flexible labor regulations to support emerging business models.


The "Employment Matters" podcast series brings to the forefront the dynamic and complex nature of employment law across Angola, Gabon, and Mozambique. As these countries navigate through legal reforms and adapt to new regulations, the insights provided by legal experts offer invaluable guidance for employers looking to understand and comply with these changes. The Employment Law Alliance, through its extensive network of legal professionals, remains a critical resource for navigating the evolving legal landscapes within these jurisdictions and beyond.